How the islands used to be

short tailed batNZ's only native land mammal the pekapeka (bat)

New Zealand has only one native land mammal: the bat. However, humans have introduced 14 highly destructive mammalian pests, either for sport, fur, to eat other pests or by accident. These pest mammals all spread quickly, thriving and multiplying in our native bush and forests, rapidly destroying vegetation and driving many of our native birds to extinction.

75% of NZ species are endemic - found nowhere else on the planet
New Zealand is a fairytale land which has been isolated in the Pacific Ocean for 80 millions years. As a result of its unique evolution, New Zealand is a home to misfits and marvels found nowhere else on the planet. Over 75% of our species are endemic, found nowhere else on the planet. Without the influence of land mammals, birds reign supreme, dominating every habitat. The rugged coastline once teemed with bizarre seabirds, and the primeval forests were home to many birds that no longer flew.

Nearly half of NZ's native species have been lost
Ancient New Zealand was a paradise. When humans started to arrive around 1000 years ago, things start to change. New Zealand's species had evolved without the land mammals that humans brought with them (rats, cats, mice, stoats). Its unique animals and plants were ecologically unprepared for the onslaught. New Zealand has lost nearly half of its species, with many more at risk from mammal predation and habitat loss.

The Bay of Islands - remains of drowned river valleys
In the far north of New Zealand, the Bay of Islands is all that remains of drowned river valleys submerged by the sea after the last ice age. It's now a remarkable feature of New Zealand’s spectacular geological landscape. What we see as islands are the hill-tops towering above the valley floors; hill-tops that are in the gradual process of natural regeneration, with support from Project Island Song.

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Ipipiri - the seven major islands of the Eastern Bay of Islands
ipipiriSeven of the major islands, with their associated islets and rock stacks, make up what is known as Ipipiri in the Eastern Bay of Islands. These islands are composed of a sequence of sedimentary rocks, mainly greywacke, sandstone and argillite with Bay of Islands greywackes being the oldest known rocks in the North Island. They offer a variety of habitats that, historically, would have provided sanctuary for an array of native species: Saddleback (tīeke), Stitchbird (hihi), Brown Teal (pateke) and the Grey-faced Petrel (oi) to name a few.

Humans, burning, farming and pests
The ingress of humans brought about the destruction of much of the native bush, eliminating the natural habitat in favour of open farmland. After many years of burning and farming, the native vegetation of these islands – broadleaf forests of rimu, kahikatea, miro, mataī and tōtara – were decimated, taking with it the magical birdsong. And with humans came mammalian pests such as rats and possum, mice and stoats. The native wildlife is not equipped to protect itself from such pests; these voracious predators would have dealt the final blow to the native species of Ipipiri, bringing silence to the islands.

Restoration
toutouwai-reintroductionVolunteers release toutotuwai (NI robin) on Urupukapuka Island 2016Project Island Song is bringing the birdsong back to the islands, note by note. The restoration project currently underway seeks to re-establish a native ecosystem for us all to enjoy. After some years of pest control, intensive weeding and planting, the project has reached the point that native species can be reintroduced and expected to thrive. Twenty species of birds, reptiles, invertebrates and plants have been identified for reintroduction to help create a thriving native islands ecosystem.

New Zealand has been a world leader in restoration of native habitat through pest management and species reintroductions. Project Island Song is proud to be part of this wave of ecological regeneration.

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Tags: Native wildlife, Species reintroductions, Pest management

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